Conservation is a cornerstone of the Namibian experience. Namibia
was the first African country to incorporate protection of the environment into
its constitution, and the government has reinforced this by giving its
communities the opportunity and rights to manage their wildlife through
Today, over 40% of Namibia’s surface area is under conservation
management. This includes national parks
and reserves, communal and commercial conservancies, community forests, and
private nature reserves.
After Independence in 1990,
visionary conservationists in the field and the Ministry of Environment and
Tourism enacted policy changes that allowed rural communities to benefit from
wildlife by forming conservancies. In
1998, the first four conservancies were registered.
Today, 65 registered conservancies embrace one in four rural
Namibians. A sense of ownership over wildlife and other resources is
encouraging people to use their resources sustainably. Wildlife is now embraced
as a complimentary land use method to agriculture and livestock herding.
People are living with wildlife, including predators and large
mammals, and are managing their natural resources wisely. They are also reaping the benefits. In 2009,
community-based natural resource management generated over N$ 42 million in
income to rural Namibians. All the while, the program is facilitating a
remarkable recovery of wildlife.
Namibia now boasts the largest free-roaming population of black
rhinos and cheetahs in the world and is the only country with an expanding
population of free-roaming lions. Namibia’s elephant population more than
doubled between 1995 and 2008 from 7,500 to over 16,000 individuals. This
remarkable turnaround has led some to call Namibia’s conservation efforts “The
greatest African wildlife recovery story over told.”